Bioflavonoids and Flavonoids

February 20, 2008 by Kitchen Table Medicine  
Filed under Bioflavonoids, Kitchen Sink

PhotobucketBioflavonoids (or flavonoids) are a class of water-soluble plant pigments that bring color to many fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits are a rich source of bioflavonoids, including disomin, hesperidin, rutin, and naringenin. Flavonoids are broken down into categories. One system breaks flavonoids into isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavans, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones. Although they are all structurally related, their functions are different.

Citrus bioflavonoids and related substances are widely used in Europe to treat diseases of the blood vessels and lymph system, including hemorrhoids, chronic venous insufficiency, easy bruising, nosebleeds, and lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. These compounds are thought to work by strengthening the walls of blood.

While they are not considered essential, some flavonoids act as anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and antiviral agents. Quercetin can block the “sorbitol pathway” that is linked to many problems associated with diabetes. Rutin and several other flavonoids may also protect blood vessels and act as antioxidants, protecting LDL-cholesterol from oxidative damage, a goal for anyone with concerns about developing heart disease.

Others, such as the anthocyanidins from bilberry, may help protect the lens of the eye from cataracts. Animal research suggests that naringenin may have anticancer activity while soy isoflavones are also currently being studied to see if they help fight cancer.

FOOD SOURCES
Flavonoids are found in a wide range of foods. For example, flavanones are in citrus, isoflavones are in soy products, anthocyanidins in grapes and berries, while flavans are in apples and tea. In addition to supplying vitamin C, citrus fruits also supply a wide variety of bioflavonoids including diosmin, hesperidin, rutin, naringenin, tangeretin, diosmetin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, and quercetin.

NATUROPATHIC USES OF BIOFLAVONOIDS AND FLAVONOIDS

Proven effective
• Capillary fragility (hesperidin, quercetin, rutin)
• Chronic venous insufficiency (rutin)
• Night blindness (bilberry)
• Nosebleeds (citrus)
• Hepatitis (catechin)
• Minor injury prevention (quercetin, anthocyanidins)
• Varicose veins (anthocyanidins, bilberry)

Likely effective
• Hemorrhoids (various citrus bioflavonoids, anthocyanidins)
• Macular degeneration (bilberry)
• Bruising (various citrus bioflavonoids, anthocyanidins)
• Chronic venous insufficiency (hesperidin/buckwheat tea)
• Cold sores (various citrus bioflavonoids)
• Diabetes (bilberry, blueberry, blackberry, etc.)
• Retinopathy (bilberry)

Possibly effective
• Atherosclerosis (quercetin, bilberry)
• Cataracts (quercetin, bilberry)
• Hay fever (quercetin, hesperidin, rutin)
• High cholesterol (quercetin)
• Menopause (hesperidin, isoflavones)
• Heavy menstruation (various citrus bioflavonoids, anthocyanidins, isoflavones)
• Peptic ulcer (quercetin)
• Diabetes (quercetin)
• Edema (quercetin, rutin)
• Gingivitis (hesperidin, rutin)
• Glaucoma (rutin)

DOSAGE
A typical dosage of citrus bioflavonoids is 600 to 1,200 milligrams per day.

SAFETY ISSUES
Citrus bioflavonoids appear to be quite safe. However, bioflavonoids may have some anticoagulant properties when taken in high doses, and therefore should be used only under medical supervision by individuals on blood-thinner drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and heparin.

Resources
1. Ross SA, Ziska DS, Zhoa K, et al. Variance of common flavonoids by brand of grapefruit juice. Fitoterapia. 2000; 71:154–161.
2. Godeberge P. Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease: a demonstrated efficacy in comparison with placebo. Angiology. 1994; 45:574–578.
3. Cospite M. Double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of clinical activity and safety of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. Angiology. 1994; 45:566–573.
4. Thanapongsathorn W, Vajrabukka T. Clinical trial of oral diosmin (Daflon®) in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992; 35:1085–1088.
5. Misra MC, Parshad R. Randomized clinical trial of micronized flavonoids in the early control of bleeding from acute internal hemorrhoids. Br J Surg. 2000; 87:868–872.
6. Ho YH, Tan M, Seow-Choen F. Micronized purified flavonidic fraction compared favorably with rubber band ligation and fiber alone in the management of bleeding hemorrhoids: randomized controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000; 43:66–69.
7. Tsouderos Y. Venous tone: are the phlebotonic properties predictive of a therapeutic benefit? A comprehensive view of our experience with Daflon 500 mg. Z Kardiol. 1991; 80(suppl 7): 95–101.
8. Ihme N, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, et al. Leg edema protection from a buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996; 50:443–447.
9. Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology. 1997; 48:77–85.
10. Guilhou JJ, Fevrier F, Debure C, et al. Benefit of a 2-month treatment with a micronized, purified flavonoidic fraction on venous ulcer healing. A randomized, double blind, controlled versus placebo trial. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp. 1997; 17(Suppl 1): 21–26.
11. Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology. 1997; 48:77–85.
12. Guilhou JJ, Fevrier F, Debure C, et al. Benefit of a 2-month treatment with a micronized, purified flavonoidic fraction on venous ulcer healing. A randomized, double blind, controlled versus placebo trial. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp. 1997; 17(Suppl 1): 21–26.
13. Galley P, Thiollet M. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol. 1993; 12:69–72.
14. Pecking AP, Fevrier B, Wargon C, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of lymphedema (secondary to conventional therapy of breast cancer). Angiology. 1997; 48:93–98.
15. Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, et al. Cholesterol-lowering activity of naringenin via inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase in rats. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999; 43:173–180.
16. Shin YW, Bok SH, Jeong TS, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of naringenin associated with hepatic cholesterol regulating enzyme changes in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1999; 69:341–347.
17. Emim JA, Oliveira AB, Lapa AJ. Pharmacological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of a citrus bioflavonoid, hesperidin, and the isoflavonoids, duartin and claussequinone, in rats and mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994; 46:118–122.
18. Manuel y Keenoy B, Vertommen J, De Leeuw I. The effect of flavonoid treatment on the glycation and antioxidant status in Type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 1999; 12:256–263.
19. Middleton E Jr, Drzewiecki G, Tatum J. The effects of citrus flavonoids on human basophil and neutrophil function. Planta Med. 1987; 53:325–328.
20. So FV, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, et al. Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer. 1996; 26:167–181.
21. Godeberge P. Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease: a demonstrated efficacy in comparison with placebo. Angiology. 1994; 45:574–578.
22. Cospite M. Double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of clinical activity and safety of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. Angiology. 1994; 45:566–573.
23. Misra MC, Parshad R. Randomized clinical trial of micronized flavonoids in the early control of bleeding from acute internal hemorrhoids. Br J Surg. 2000; 87:868–872.
24. Ho YH, Tan M, Seow-Choen F. Micronized purified flavonidic fraction compared favorably with rubber band ligation and fiber alone in the management of bleeding hemorrhoids: randomized controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000; 43:66–69.
25. Thanapongsathorn W, Vajrabukka T. Clinical trial of oral diosmin (Daflon®) in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992; 35:1085–1088.
26. Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology. 1997; 48:77–85.
27. Ihme N, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, et al. Leg oedema protection from a buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996; 50:443–447.
28. Galley P, Thiollet M. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol. 1993; 12:69–72.
29. Miller MJ. Injuries to athletes. Evaluation of ascorbic acid and water-soluble citrus bioflavonoids in the prophylaxis of injuries in athletes. Med Times. 1960; 88:313–314.
30. Meyer OC. Safety and security of Daflon 500 mg in venous insufficiency and in hemorrhoidal disease. Angiology. 1994; 45:579–584.
31. Buckshee K, Takkar D, Aggarwal N. Micronized flavonoid therapy in internal hemorrhoids of pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1997; 57:145–151.
32. Bracke ME, Depypere HT, Boterberg T, et al. Influence of tangeretin on tamoxifen’s therapeutic benefit in mammary cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91:354–359.
33. Strick R, Strissel PL, Borgers S, et al. Dietary bioflavonoids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000; 97:4790–4795.
34. Dr. William Mitchell ND

Photobucket Dr. Nicole Sundene, NMD is a licensed Naturopathic Medical Doctor at Fountain Hills Naturopathic Medicine 16719 E Palisades Blvd, Suite 205, Fountain Hills, AZ 85268.

She believes we should utilize natural medicines to treat the root cause of disease rather than just treating symptoms, as symptoms are a message of imbalance sent from the body and will persist until they are properly addressed.

For appointments please visit http://FHnaturopathic.com for more information about Naturopathic Medicine services.
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Comments

3 Responses to “Bioflavonoids and Flavonoids”

  1. Chocolate Chips Better than Viagra? | Kitchen Table Medicine on November 19th, 2008 7:34 pm

    [...] are chock full of proanthocyanins, citrus is a fantastic source of hesperidin and rutin, and onions are an excellent source of [...]

  2. UNLITTYCRERRY on April 10th, 2009 4:37 am

    FANTASTIC!

  3. How ANYONE Can be a Naturopath in 10 Simple Steps | Kitchen Table Medicine on May 29th, 2009 3:28 pm

    [...] approve food additives that have never even been tested on human beings. Be sure to also recommend Flavonoid rich foods like berries, chocolate, tea, and red wine; high in antioxidants to prevent free radical [...]

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